What are Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. In other words, the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. These disorders include epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine and other headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, neuroinfections, brain tumors, traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma, and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition

- World Health Organization

1 Billion People Worldwide

The report, Neurological disorders: Public Health Challenges, reveals that approximately one billion people are effected worldwide. Neurological disorders affect people in all countries, regardless of age, gender, education, or income.

More than 600 Different Diagnoses

Of the more than 600 different neurological disorders that exist, there are some that are more prevalent than others.
Please excuse any omissions.

  • Acquired Epileptiform Aphasia
  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum
  • Agnosia
  • Aicardi syndrome
  • Alexander disease
  • Alpers' disease
  • Alternating hemiplegia
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (see Motor Neurone Disease)
  • Anencephaly
  • Angelman syndrome
  • Angiomatosis
  • Anoxia
  • Aphasia
  • Apraxia
  • Arachnoid cysts
  • Arachnoiditis
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Asperger's syndrome
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Autism
  • Auditory processing disorder
  • Autonomic Dysfunction
  • Back Pain
  • Batten disease
  • Behcet's disease
  • Bell's palsy
  • Benign Essential Blepharospasm
  • Benign Focal Amyotrophy
  • Benign Intracranial Hypertension
  • Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria
  • Binswanger's disease
  • Blepharospasm
  • Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome
  • Brachial plexus injury
  • Brain abscess
  • Brain damage
  • Brain injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Brown-Sequard syndrome
  • Canavan disease
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
  • Causalgia
  • Central pain syndrome
  • Central pontine myelinolysis
  • Centronuclear myopathy
  • Cephalic disorder
  • Cerebral aneurysm
  • Cerebral arteriosclerosis
  • Cerebral atrophy
  • Cerebral gigantism
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Chiari malformation
  • Chorea
  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)
  • Chronic pain
  • Chronic regional pain syndrome
  • Coffin Lowry syndrome
  • Coma, including Persistent Vegetative State
  • Congenital facial diplegia
  • Corticobasal degeneration
  • Cranial arteritis
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • Cumulative trauma disorders
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Cytomegalic inclusion body disease (CIBD)
  • Cytomegalovirus Infection
  • Dandy-Walker syndrome
  • Dawson disease
  • De Morsier's syndrome
  • Dejerine-Klumpke palsy
  • Dejerine-Sottas disease
  • Delayed sleep phase syndrome
  • Dementia
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Developmental Dyspraxia
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Diffuse sclerosis
  • Dysautonomia
  • Dyscalculia
  • Dysgraphia
  • Dyslexia
  • Dystonia 
  • Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
  • Empty sella syndrome
  • Encephalitis
  • Encephalocele
  • Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis
  • Encopresis
  • Epilepsy
  • Erb's palsy
  • Erythromelalgia
  • Essential tremor
  • Fabry's disease
  • Fahr's syndrome
  • Fainting
  • Familial spastic paralysis
  • Febrile seizures
  • Fisher syndrome
  • Friedreich's ataxia
  • FART Syndrome
  • Gaucher's disease
  • Gerstmann's syndrome
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Giant cell inclusion disease
  • Globoid cell Leukodystrophy
  • Gray matter heterotopia
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • HTLV-1 associated myelopathy
  • Hallervorden-Spatz disease
  • Head injury
  • Headache
  • Hemifacial Spasm
  • Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
  • Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis
  • Herpes zoster oticus
  • Herpes zoster
  • Hirayama syndrome
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Huntington's disease
  • Hydranencephaly
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Hypercortisolism
  • Hypoxia
  • Immune-Mediated encephalomyelitis
  • Inclusion body myositis
  • Incontinentia pigmenti
  • Infantile phytanic acid storage disease
  • Infantile Refsum disease
  • Infantile spasms
  • Inflammatory myopathy
  • Intracranial cyst
  • Intracranial hypertension
  • Joubert syndrome
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Kennedy disease
  • Kinsbourne syndrome
  • Klippel Feil syndrome
  • Krabbe disease
  • Kugelberg-Welander disease
  • Kuru
  • Lafora disease
  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
  • Landau-Kleffner syndrome
  • Lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome
  • Learning disabilities
  • Leigh's disease
  • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
  • Leukodystrophy
  • Lewy body dementia
  • Lissencephaly
  • Locked-In syndrome
  • Lou Gehrig's disease (See Motor Neurone Disease)
  • Lumbar disc disease
  • Lyme disease - Neurological Sequelae
  • Machado-Joseph disease (Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3)
  • Macrencephaly
  • Megalencephaly
  • Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome
  • Menieres disease
  • Meningitis
  • Menkes disease
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  • Microcephaly
  • Migraine
  • Miller Fisher syndrome
  • Mini-Strokes
  • Mitochondrial Myopathies
  • Mobius syndrome
  • Monomelic amyotrophy
  • Motor Neurone Disease
  • Motor skills disorder
  • Moyamoya disease
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Multi-Infarct Dementia
  • Multifocal motor neuropathy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Multiple system atrophy with postural hypotension
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis
  • Myoclonic Encephalopathy of infants
  • Myoclonus
  • Myopathy
  • Myotubular myopathy
  • Myotonia congenita
  • Narcolepsy
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
  • Neurological manifestations of AIDS
  • Neurological sequelae of lupus
  • Neuromyotonia
  • Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
  • Neuronal migration disorders
  • Niemann-Pick disease
  • Non 24-hour sleep-wake syndrome
  • Nonverbal learning disorder
  • O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome
  • Occipital Neuralgia
  • Occult Spinal Dysraphism Sequence
  • Ohtahara syndrome
  • Olivopontocerebellar atrophy
  • Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome
  • Optic neuritis
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Overuse syndrome
  • Palinopsia
  • Paresthesia
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Paramyotonia Congenita
  • Paraneoplastic diseases
  • Paroxysmal attacks
  • Parry-Romberg syndrome (also known as Rombergs Syndrome)
  • Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
  • Periodic Paralyses
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Persistent Vegetative State
  • Pervasive developmental disorders
  • Photic sneeze reflex
  • Phytanic Acid Storage disease
  • Pick's disease
  • Pinched Nerve
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • PMG
  • Polio
  • Polymicrogyria
  • Polymyositis
  • Porencephaly
  • Post-Polio syndrome
  • Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN)
  • Postinfectious Encephalomyelitis
  • Postural Hypotension
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Primary Lateral Sclerosis
  • Prion diseases
  • Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy also known as Rombergs_Syndrome
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • Progressive Sclerosing Poliodystrophy
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
  • Pseudotumor cerebri
  • Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (Type I and Type II)
  • Rasmussen's encephalitis
  • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome
  • Refsum disease
  • Repetitive motion disorders
  • Repetitive stress injury
  • Restless legs syndrome
  • Retrovirus-associated myelopathy
  • Rett syndrome
  • Reye's syndrome
  • Rombergs_Syndrome
  • Rabies
  • Saint Vitus dance
  • Sandhoff disease
  • Schytsophrenia
  • Schilder's disease
  • Schizencephaly
  • Sensory Integration Dysfunction
  • Septo-optic dysplasia
  • Shaken baby syndrome
  • Shingles
  • Shy-Drager syndrome
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sleep apnea
  • Sleeping sickness
  • Snatiation
  • Sotos syndrome
  • Spasticity
  • Spina bifida
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal cord tumors
  • Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, see Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia
  • Stiff-person syndrome
  • Stroke
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
  • Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy
  • Superficial siderosis
  • Sydenham's chorea
  • Syncope
  • Synesthesia
  • Syringomyelia
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome
  • Thomsen disease
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Tic Douloureux
  • Todd's paralysis
  • Tourette syndrome
  • Transient ischemic attack
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
  • Transverse myelitis
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Tremor
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Tropical spastic paraparesis
  • Trypanosomiasis
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Vasculitis including temporal arteritis
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)
  • Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis (VE)
  • Wallenberg's syndrome
  • Werdnig-Hoffman disease
  • West syndrome
  • Whiplash
  • Williams syndrome
  • Wilson's disease
  • X-Linked Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy
  • Zellweger syndrome